This BREF addresses the storage and the transfer/handling of liquids, liquefied gases and solids, regardless of the sector or industry. It addresses emissions to air, soil and water. However, most attention is given to emissions to air. Energy and noise are also addressed but to a lesser extent. In particular for the storage of liquids and liquefied gases, the following types of tanks are addressed:
• open top tank
• external floating roof tank
• fixed roof tank
• aboveground horizontal storage tanks (atmospheric)
• horizontal storage tanks (pressurised)
• vertical storage tanks (pressurised)
• spheres (pressurised)
• mounded storage tank (pressurised)
• lifter roof (variable vapour space) tank
• refrigerated storage tank
• underground storage tank.
In particular for the solids storage methods the following are addressed:
• sacks and bulk bags
• silos and bunkers
• packaged dangerous solids.
The other storage modes addressed are:
• containers and the storage of containers
• basins and lagoons
• mined caverns
• salt leached caverns
• floating storage.
For the transfer and handling of liquids and liquefied gases, techniques such as piping systems and loading and unloading equipment are addressed, such as as valves, pumps, compressors, flanges and gaskets, etc. For the transfer and handling of solids, techniques such as mobile unloading devices, grabs, dump pits, fill pipes, thrower belts, conveyors and feeders are described, and in each case the emission sources are identified.