This BREF covers the manufacture of organic chemicals produced in large volumes. LVOC processes are considered to have the following features:
• the products are rarely consumer products in their own right, but are basic chemicals that are used in large quantities as raw materials in the
synthesis of other chemicals
• production takes place in continuously operating plants
• products are not produced in a range of formulations or compositions (grades)
• products have relatively low added value
• the product specifications are defined to allow a wide range of applications (as compared, for example, with ‘fine’ chemicals).
General principles of management systems, unit processes, unit operations and infrastructures that are valid for all LVOC production processes are included in this BREF. It also contains generic product groups that are linked by common chemistry or production techniques. Finally, it contains specific information on the manufacture of a small number of selected ‘illustrative processes’:
• lower olefins by the cracking process
• aromatics such as benzene/toluene/xylene (BTX)
• oxygenated compounds such as ethylene oxide, ethylene glycols and formaldehyde
• nitrogenated compounds such as acrylonitrile and toluene diisocyanate
• halogenated compounds such as ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
• sulphur and phosphorus compounds
• organo-metallic compounds.