This BREF addresses processes in smitheries and foundries, specifically the activities under points 2.3 (b), 2.4 and 2.5 (b) of Annex I to the Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU:
- operation of smitheries with hammers the energy of which exceeds 50 kJ per hammer and where the calorific power used exceeds 20 MW;
- operation of ferrous metal foundries with a production capacity exceeding 20 tonnes per day;
- non-ferrous metal foundries with a melting capacity exceeding 4 tonnes per day for lead or 20 tonnes per day for all other metals.
The SF BREF covers continuous casting processes in ferrous metal foundries for the production of grey or nodular iron castings at or near their final shape. It also includes non-ferrous metal foundries using alloyed ingots, internal scrap, recovered products (e.g. external scrap) or liquid metal for the production of castings at or near their final shape.
Overview of major processes
Smithery processes include:
- heating and metal treatment;
- heat treatment.
Foundry processes include:
- melting and metal treatment;
- preparation of moulds and cores (core-making);
- casting of the molten metal into the mould followed by cooling for solidification and removing the casting from the mould.